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Anal cancer symptoms and treatment methods

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Anal cancer is a rare malignant cancer of the anal tissue that causes symptoms similar to common health problems associated with the anus, including symptoms of hemorrhoids and fistulas. In this article, we will talk about the symptoms of anal cancer and the most important information related to it:

Anal cancer symptoms
Symptoms of anal cancer are prominent and can be detected early, although some patients may not have any symptoms or signs.

In general, bleeding from the anus is one of the primary symptoms and indicators of anal cancer, in addition, this type of cancer may cause the following symptoms and signs:

A change in the frequency of defecation between diarrhea and constipation.
Fecal incontinence.
The stool comes out thin, that is, a narrowing in the diameter of the stool.
A bump or bump forms near the anus or in the anal canal.
swollen lymph nodes in the anal or groin area.
the feeling of pressure or pain in the area around the anus.
Itching in the area around the anus.
mucous secretions from the anus.
Anal cancer diagnosis
Anal cancer is usually detected early because these tumors appear in an easily accessible area and allow the doctor to see or feel them. In addition, uncomfortable or painful symptoms of anal cancer contribute to prompting the patient to seek medical help.

In general, doctors can diagnose anal cancer by doing the following:

A thorough physical examination of the patient.
Take information on the patient’s health history, and discuss the symptoms of anal cancer in detail.
An examination inside the anal area is called a digital rectal exam,” and it’s done to check for any signs or lumps that suggest tumors.
performing some imaging tests, which include the following: endoscopy of the anus or anus and rectum together, and an internal ultrasound scan.
Anal tissue biopsy.
If anal cancer is diagnosed, the doctor may order other imaging tests to determine the stage of cancer and how far it has spread. These tests include:

Computed tomography.
Magnetic resonance imaging.
Positron emission tomography.
Anal cancer treatment
After we have discussed the most important information regarding the symptoms of anal cancer and how to diagnose it, here are the main points regarding how to treat this disease.

In general, the treatment of anal cancer depends on several factors, the most important of which are the following: the size of the tumor, the stage of cancer, how far it has spread, and the general health of the patient.

All of the above factors help in making a suitable treatment plan for the patient’s condition, in addition to the fact that the earlier the disease is in its early stages, the higher the cure rate.

In general, the main methods of treating anal cancer are as follows:

  1. Chemotherapy
    Chemotherapy is a treatment that includes a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, both of which enhance the action of the other in order to obtain curative results from the disease.
  2. Surgical treatment
    Surgical treatment includes removing small tumors that have formed in the anal area; one of the lower portions of the digestive tract, such as the anal canal or rectum, may be removed, or the last portion of the large intestine may need to be removed if the response to chemotherapy and radiotherapy fails.
  3. Other treatments
    Other treatments may be used if the above methods are not effective in controlling the disease or if it is spreading widely. These treatments include:

Immunotherapy.
Chemotherapy.
palliative care or palliative care.

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